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20 Largest Empires In History By Population

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In all respects history, much of the world has been ruled by empires. Winning nations and relentlessly expanding their territories has always been a favorite past time of those in power. Regardless of whether it was the Romans, Greeks, or Ottomans, it seems that amassing resources, countries, and the worship of a powerful legacy played a huge role in the rise and fall of their empires.

Albeit today we no longer see borders shifting back and forth so quickly, the art of imperialism is currently alive and well. Here is a list of 20 Largest Empires In History By Population.

Here Are The 20 Largest And Greatest Empires In History By Population

1. Abbasid Caliphate

Abbasid Caliphate Largest Empires In History

According to first Islamic caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate was the third Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Also known as the Islamic Golden age and the successor of the Umayyad caliphate which was founded in Kufa in 750 CE and later established Baghdad as their capital in 762.

In this period valued the intellectual capacity of their citizens and aims to maximize it to its full potential. Then this caliphate became one of the best intellectual centers for the sciences, philosophy, and education.

2. Achaemenid Empire

Achaemenid Empire Largest Empires In History

Achaemenid Empire was founded in the 6th Century and named after King Achaemenes, it spanned from the Indus Valley in the east, onto the northeastern border of Greece. When it ranked by population percentage, this empire is the largest with 44% of the world’s population belonging to it.

It’s the line of monarchs addressed to establish concord the tribes and nationalities through the complex of roads that they constructed.

3. Empire of Brazil

Empire of Brazil Largest Empires In History

The empire of Brazil was established as the 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay. Empire was made independent by the son of the king who made it as such. Thus, Pedro I, the King Dom’s son João VI, turned out the first emperor of Brazil. The roles of slavery were one of the highlights of this era until it was finally abolished in 1888.

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Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II  was able to sustain the peace and economic prosperity, he was not able to sustain the kingdom per se and  58 year later, the empire was not able to hold up on the coup d’etat and eventually fell due to the lack of support.

4. French Colonial Empire

French Colonial Empire Largest Empires In History

The victory of France reached Africa and Southeast Asia with the concept that the higher races have the right to enroll the lower races. These set of territories were under French provision from the 17th century to the late 1960′s, to extend over 12 million square kilometers. During the 19th to the 20th century, it was declared as the second largest in the world next to the British Empire.

5. Göktürk Khaganate

Göktürk Khaganate largest empires in history by population

In 552, Göktürk Khaganate was founded by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia Under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan and his sons. This nation had a broad association with different kingdoms or traditions from the northern part of China.

Fifty years after the downfall of the First Turkish Empire, the Second Turk Empire was set up and controlled the eastern part of the previous kingdom. The Orkhon scripts that have been confined and still exist until today were created during that time.

6. Golden Horde Khanate

Golden Horde Khanate largest empires in history by population

The Kipchak Khanate, further referred to as the Golden Horde, was built up in the thirteenth century in the Mongol empire’s north-western sector. Essentially, a Mongol and later a Turkish khanate, this “empire” lasted for a comparatively short hundred year period until 1395.

7. Han Dynasty

Han Dynasty largest empires in history by population

Han dynasty was known as the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), conducted by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and completely succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Han Dynasty’s period is considered a golden age in Chinese history, spanning over fore centuries.

To this day, the majority ethnic group of China refers to itself as the “Han people” and the inscription of Chinese is referred to as “Han characters”.

8. Japanese Empire

Japanese Empire largest empires in history by population

This was the largest maritime empire in history. During that time it spanned more than 7 million square kilometers and gained such ignominy that it took atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki plus plenty of defeats to capitulation and reconstruct to what is now known as Nippon-koku or State of Japan.

He was a  member of the Axis alliance, who could forget how powerful the Japanese empire was in World War II.

9. Macedonian Empire

Macedonian Empire largest empires in history by population

Alexander had the great aim to reach the “ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea” as the king of Macedon. With massive confidence, he was able to conquer territories that stretched from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas.  This accomplishment made him one of the most successful commanders in history.

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10. Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire largest empire in history by area

The Maurya Empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya that dominated the Indian subcontinent between 322 and 187 BCE. During the empire was the largest political entity to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning over 5 million square kilometers.

On account of an economic system which was kept in check by the military and government. Some religions like Hinduism, Buddism, and Jainism played an important role in the kingdom’s governance and the kings’ as well as their subjects’ lives.

11. Ming Dynasty

Ming Dynasty largest empires by population

The Empire of the Great Ming popularly described as “one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social durability in human history”. The Great Ming was the second to last Imperial era in Chinese history then it was also the last dynasty that was ruled by the ethnic Han Chinese. On account of natural and man-made catastrophes, the Ming fell and paved the way for the last sovereign dynasty, the Qing.

12. Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany longest empire in history

Adolf Hitler was one of the most infamous figures of the twentieth century and he controlled the government of the Third Reich,  also transformed it from a republic to an autocracy employing the process of Gleichschaltung.  Albeit the government of Nazi survived quite well and was even flourishing during the Great Depression when the world was in dire straits, it’s infamy arose to even more incredible heights due to their publicity on racism, particularly antisemitism, causing the ruthless bloodshed that eventually came to be known as the Holocaust.

13. Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire longest empire in history

It also is known as the Turkish Empire, this multinational, multilingual empire’s economic aim was to enhance revenues without drastic changes in the lives of the subjects, their commercial activities as well as traditional beliefs. The state of Ottoman became an empire with the victory of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453.

The dynasty of ottoman dominated for 623 years until the monarchy was abolished in 1922 and encircled parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia.

14. Qing Dynasty

Qing Dynasty longest empire in history

Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China and was got the power in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. Their culture became highly integrated into Chinese culture. On account of rebellions, natural catastrophes and getting defeated in battle against the western kingdoms. The policies of the government were followed alongside the ones brought in by the founder of the dynasty.

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15. Rashidun Caliphate

Rashidun Caliphate largest empires in history maps

After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Rashidun Caliphate was the first of the four major caliphates established. It was marked by a twenty-five year period of rapid military expansion and followed by a five-year period of internal strife. This development of the Islamic empire had accomplished systematic economic policies and strategies.

16. Roman Empire

Roman Empire greatest empires in history

Roman Empire had a deep and lasting impact especially on the language development, religion, philosophy, law, architecture, and forms of government in the locality it governed, especially Europe, that means of European expansionism, the rest of the modern world. Numerous fundamental components of the modern world were affected by the Roman Empire that should come as no surprise Envisaging that it was around for nearly 1,500 years.

17. Sassanid Empire

Sassanid Empire greatest empires in history

The Sassanid Empire is known as one of Persia’s most important and influential historical eras During it’s Late Antiquity period. It pulled farther out to the western parts of Europe, Africa, China, and India, it then played an important roll in the development of European and Asian medieval culture.

18. Tang Dynasty

Tang Dynasty greatest empires in history

With a populace base of almost 80 million people, the dynasty was able to raise up armies of a huge number of men to contend with the warring powers of inward Asia. Notwithstanding the cracks in government undertakings going into the second 50% of the Tang Dynasty, the workmanship and culture of the period stayed bright and thriving.

19. Umayyad Caliphate

Umayyad Caliphate great ancient empires

Umayyad Caliphate was second of the four Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It is covered more than 5 million square miles and employed the best administration system the world has yet to be seen and the fifth largest adjoining empire to exist. This period was considered as the Golden Age of Arab.

20. Yuan Dynasty

Yuan Dynasty largest empire

Yuan Dynasty was the empire of China established by Kublai Khan who was the leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. In the 11th century officially proclaimed the dynasty and considered the successor of both the Mongol Empire and an imperial dynasty, the period bore the Mandate of Heaven.

It also called the Empire of the Great Khan, Due to this reason, Kublai Khan claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates.

20 Largest Empires In History By Population
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I am a former Associated Press sports journalist whose journalistic career began in 1969 after graduating from Syracuse University with B.A. Graduates in journalism and political science. My 38 books include autobiographies written by ghosts of Ron Blomberg, Milo Hamilton, and Al Clark plus The New Baseball Bible, a 424-page unconventional illustrated story published in 2017. My authorship appeared in The Sporting News, Baseball Digest, USA TODAY and the official programs of the Stars and the World Series. I received five first-place awards from the Garden State Journalist Association at its annual dinner on May 23, 2018.

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